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Unveiling the Silent Threat: Signs and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer, a term that encompasses cancers of both the colon and rectum, ranks as one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide. Despite its prevalence, recognizing the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer is essential for early detection and prevention.

8 Signs and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

Persistent Changes in Bowel Habits

One of the hallmark signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer is a persistent alteration in your bowel habits. This may include:

  • Diarrhea or Constipation: Frequent episodes of diarrhea or constipation that last for more than a few days.
  • Narrow Stools: Thin or pencil-like stools, as opposed to the typical cylindrical shape.
  • Urgent Bowel Movements: Sudden, uncontrollable urges to have a bowel movement, even after recently emptying your bowels.
Signs and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer | VS Hospitals

Blood in the Stool

Among the various signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, the presence of blood in your stool is one that should never be ignored. This symptom, known as rectal bleeding, can manifest in different ways and may hold crucial clues to your overall digestive health.

  • Bright Red Blood: In some cases, colorectal cancer can cause bright red blood to appear in your stool. This typically suggests that the bleeding is occurring closer to the rectum or anus. However, it’s essential to keep in mind that bright red blood doesn’t always indicate cancer. Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or other less severe conditions can also cause this symptom.
  • Dark, Tarry Stools: On the other hand, if you notice dark, tarry stools, it could signify bleeding higher up in the digestive tract, such as the colon. These stools often have a sticky, tar-like consistency due to the presence of partially digested blood. This type of bleeding can be a more concerning sign of colorectal cancer.

Unexplained Weight Loss

When it comes to the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, unexplained weight loss is a matter that should be taken seriously. While losing a few pounds may initially seem like a welcome change, especially if you’ve been trying to shed excess weight, unexpected weight loss can often indicate an underlying health issue, including colorectal cancer.

Here’s what you need to know about this potential symptom:

  • Significant and Unintentional: The key here is that the weight loss is significant and unintentional. If you’ve been making conscious efforts to lose weight through diet and exercise, that’s one thing. But if the pounds are dropping off without any deliberate changes to your lifestyle or eating habits, it’s a cause for concern.
  • Possible Causes: Colorectal cancer can lead to unexplained weight loss for several reasons. One of the most common reasons is that the tumor can obstruct the colon, affecting your ability to digest and absorb nutrients from food. Additionally, the cancer itself can trigger an inflammatory response in the body, leading to a higher metabolic rate and calorie burn, which can result in weight loss.

Abdominal Discomfort and Pain

Among the array of signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, persistent abdominal discomfort, and pain are often overlooked or mistaken for more benign issues. However, understanding and recognizing this symptom can be vital in detecting colorectal cancer in its early stages.

Here’s what you should know:

  • Chronic Abdominal Discomfort: Colorectal cancer can lead to persistent discomfort, cramps, or pain in the abdominal area. This discomfort may vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe. What sets this pain apart is its persistence; it doesn’t come and go like occasional digestive discomfort but lingers for an extended period.
  • Location of Discomfort: The location of the pain can also provide important clues. Colorectal cancer pain typically originates in the lower abdomen, where the colon and rectum are located. However, the exact location and nature of the pain can vary from person to person.


Fatigue, when it comes to the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, is a silent but potentially significant indicator that should not be underestimated. It can often be a vague and non-specific symptom, but when persistent and unrelenting, it can serve as a crucial clue to underlying health issues, including colorectal cancer.

Here’s what you need to know about fatigue in the context of colorectal cancer:

  • Chronic and Unexplained Exhaustion: Fatigue related to colorectal cancer is not your typical tiredness that can be remedied with a good night’s sleep. Instead, it’s characterized by a chronic and unexplained feeling of extreme tiredness that doesn’t improve with rest. It persists over weeks or even months.
  • Accompanying Weakness and Malaise: Colorectal cancer-related fatigue is often accompanied by a sense of weakness and an overall feeling of being unwell. You may find it difficult to perform daily tasks or engage in activities you once enjoyed.

Unexplained Anemia

When discussing the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, unexplained anemia is a topic that deserves our attention. Anemia, characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells, can be a silent but significant indicator of an underlying health issue, including colorectal cancer.

Feeling of Incomplete Bowel Movements

If you often feel like your bowel movements are incomplete or that you haven’t completely emptied your bowels, it could be indicative of colorectal cancer. This sensation may persist despite multiple trips to the restroom.

Family History and Genetic Factors

A family history of colorectal cancer, especially in first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children), can increase your risk. Additionally, certain genetic conditions like Lynch syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) can predispose individuals to colorectal cancer. If you have a family history or are at risk due to genetic factors, it’s essential to undergo regular screenings.

Colorectal Cancer Risk factors

Colorectal cancer, also known as colon or rectal cancer, is influenced by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Understanding these colorectal cancer risk factors can help individuals take preventive measures and make informed decisions about their health. Here are some of the key risk factors for colorectal cancer:

  • Age: Age is a significant factor in the risk of developing colorectal cancer, with the likelihood increasing as individuals grow older.
  • Family history and genetics: Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer or certain genetic syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer), have a higher risk of developing the disease.
  • Personal history of colorectal polyps or cancer: Individuals who have previously had colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer are at an increased risk of developing the disease again.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Conditions like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation of the colon and rectum, can increase the risk of colorectal cancer over time.
  • Diet: A diet high in red meat (especially processed meats like bacon and sausage), low in fiber, and lacking in fruits and vegetables may contribute to an increased risk of colorectal cancer.


Recognizing the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and successful treatment. If you or someone you know experiences any of these symptoms, it’s imperative to consult a healthcare professional promptly. Regular screenings, especially for individuals with risk factors, can also play a pivotal role in catching colorectal cancer in its early stages when it is most treatable. Remember, early detection can make all the difference in the fight against colorectal cancer, so prioritize your health and well-being.

Read also Early Head and Neck Cancer Symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

Colorectal cancer screening guidelines typically include options like colonoscopy, fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), and stool DNA tests. The American Cancer Society generally recommends regular screening starting at age 45 for individuals at average risk, with earlier and more frequent screenings for those with certain risk factors. Consult your healthcare provider for personalized recommendations.

While there are no guarantees, adopting a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Strategies such as maintaining a balanced diet rich in fiber, avoiding excessive red and processed meats, staying physically active, quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol consumption can contribute to a lower risk.

Red flags for colorectal cancer include persistent changes in bowel habits (such as diarrhea or constipation), rectal bleeding, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain or discomfort, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, especially if they persist or worsen, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and appropriate testing. Early detection can significantly improve treatment outcomes.

The biggest symptom of colon cancer can vary from person to person, but one of the most common and significant symptoms is a change in bowel habits, particularly persistent diarrhea or constipation. Other common symptoms may include rectal bleeding, blood in the stool, abdominal pain or discomfort, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and a feeling of incomplete bowel emptying. It’s essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any concerning symptoms, especially if they persist or worsen. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in colon cancer.

Colon cancer can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in people over the age of 50. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases of colon cancer in younger adults, including those in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. This has led to recommendations for earlier screening in some cases, especially if there is a family history of colon cancer or other risk factors. It’s important to be aware of the symptoms and risk factors for colon cancer and to discuss screening options with a healthcare provider based on your individual circumstances.

Colon cancer can often be treated and, in some cases, cured, especially when it is detected at an early stage. The treatment and prognosis for colon cancer depend on several factors, including the stage at which it is diagnosed, its location, and the overall health of the patient.

Colorectal Surgery to remove the cancerous tissue is a common treatment, and it can be curative if the cancer has not spread beyond the colon. Additional treatments such as chemotherapy treatment and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases or when cancer has spread to other parts of the body.